2014. Canada has 98% of the breeding population of Cape May Warblers. 2016). The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (2015) has identified the Cape May Warbler as a Species in Greatest Conservation Need because of habitat loss and a potentially narrow thermal preference, which could limit its ability to adapt to climate change. Become a member and get exclusive access to articles, contests and more! © 2020 Copyright Minnesota Breeding Bird Atlas. 2017. 2017). A few years later, Janssen (1987) described the Cape May Warbler’s distribution as primarily the northern part of northeastern Minnesota in “normal” years but stressed that its numbers can fluctuate widely with spruce budworm outbreaks. Laurel, MD: U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The first atlas, from 1983 to 1988, identified breeding evidence in 137 townships, mostly in the Upper Peninsula, but also in the northern Lower Peninsula (Chartier et al. These trend data indicated a decline in the population from 1995 to 2001 but a substantial increase from 2001 to 2016. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/mnwap/index.html, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. They confirmed nesting in 10 counties in northern Wisconsin from Douglas to Door Counties. (2015) and the National Audubon Society (2015) in their analysis of North American birds susceptible to climate change concluded that the Cape May Warbler is “climate threatened.” Their climate models indicated an 89% loss of its current summer range by 2080. County Nesting Records of Minnesota Birds. The Cape May Warbler has a moderate to high Continental Concern Score of 13/20 and has been placed on the the Partners in Flight Yellow Watch List of species of conservation concern (Rosenberg et al. Minneapolis: The Minnesota Ornithologists’ Union. In the extensive counts in the Agassiz Lowlands Subsection in northern Minnesota, Cape May Warblers were very rare (Bednar et al. Why we should think twice before offering birds food with corn. Breeds in boreal forest of far northern U.S. and Canada. 1984. 2 vols. Cape May Warbler breeds in boreal coniferous forests across Canada, from Alberta east to Quebec and in portions of the northern lower 48, from Minnesota to Maine. Cape May Warblers suffer a high number of collisions in Florida because a substantial part of the North American population migrates from Florida to overwinter in the Caribbean. 2015. “Spatio-temporal Ecology of Forest Birds.” PhD diss., University of Minnesota. Among the dazzling cohort of spring warblers, the first Cape May Warbler to arrive is a balm: its mossy green back, tiger-striped breast, and chestnut cheek patch make it unlike any other warbler. Male defends nesting territory against other Cape Mays and other warbler … Morse (1989), primarily from his research in the northeastern United States, suggested that Cape May Warblers may have been at or near their maximum historic population levels in the 1980s. Audubon’s Birds and Climate Change Report: A Primer for Practitioners. Ontario: Department of Lands and Forests. Data-version 2012. Janssen, Robert B. 1987. All rights reserved. Morse, Douglass H. 1989. Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo Press. Summary statistics for the Cape May Warbler observations by breeding status category for all blocks and priority blocks (each 5 km x 5 km) surveyed during the Minnesota Breeding Bird Atlas (2009-2013). A primary area of focus for reversing the decline is in the Southern Shield and Maritime Provinces Region in Canada, where they have developed a series of Bird Conservation Regional Strategies because the species is identified as a priority (Environment Canada 2014). Learn more. Cape May Warbler Breeding Bird Survey MaP, 2011-2015 : Image credit: U. S. Geological Survey : Return to Cape May Warbler page Sign up for our newsletter! Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Summary of Breeding Bird Trends in the Chippewa and Superior National Forests of Minnesota – 1995–2016. A spruce budworm specialist, the warbler’s population fluctuations are correlated with the boom and bust of the spruce budworm, a naturally occurring insect that causes periodic widespread defoliation of spruces and firs. 2016). Minnesota Birds: Where, When and How Many. It breeds in northern North America. Grinde (2015) in an analysis of colonization and extinction dynamics by forest patch sizes found that the Cape May Warbler had an increased probability of colonization in small forest patches. Nesting. Breeding population trend for the Cape May Warbler survey-wide in North America from 1966-2015 based on the federal Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer et al. Dullest immature females are entirely gray with indistinct streaking below, usually with a hint of paler neck sides and greenish edges to wing feathers. (1987) also reported similar fluctuations, which ranged from 34 pairs per km2 in 1979, to 370 pairs per km2 in the early 1980s, to almost none in 1986. Your source for becoming a better birder. The Birds of Minnesota. The greatest concern for the species is its large population decline since the early 1970s. Loss et al. Its breeding range spans all but the westernmost parts of southern Canada, the Great Lakes region, and New England. Highest densities have been observed in eastern Quebec and central Ontario (Figure 1). Kendeigh, S. Charles. Brewer, Richard, Gail A. McPeek, and Raymond J. Adams Jr. 1991. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. We featured Cape May Warbler, pictured above, in our June 2017 issue. A reader asks about a female robin’s behavior on their property. 2016). Plumages variable. Bednar, Josh D., Edmund J. Zlonis, Hannah G. Panci, Ron Moen, and Gerald J. Niemi. This finding seemed to coincide with the species’ use of sites highly disturbed by spruce budworm, which produced open areas and associated edges. Langham, Gary M., Justin G. Schuetz, Trisha Distler, Candan U. Soykan, and Chad Wilsey. Kākāpō voted winner of New Zealand’s Bird of the Year contest, Photos of the day: First half of November 2020, What birders should know about GMO products in bird food. Contrary to the BBS surveys, the NFB monitoring program detected a significantly increasing trend of Cape May Warblers in the Superior National Forest of 6.6% per year (Figure 7). Its population decline is likely due to many factors, including mortality during migration, the availability of a variable food supply (spruce budworm), and reductions in coniferous trees by logging, climate change, and lack of reforestation. It is unclear how this species will respond to future climate change, but the scenario does not look positive given its population is already declining. Found patchily distributed across Canada from Labrador to British Columbia and in the northern portions of the Upper Midwest and the northeastern United States. Mortality from collisions was of most concern in peninsular Florida, where the warbler was ranked ninth of all species examined for this problem. Where Have all the Birds Gone? This map depicts the range boundary, defined as the areas where the species is estimated to occur at a rate of 5% or more for at least one week within each season. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2015. The Cape May Warbler was confirmed nesting in 11 blocks within Lake, Lake of the Woods, Roseau, and St. Louis Counties. © 2020 Madavor Media, LLC. In Minnesota, Roberts (1932) quizzically stated about the Cape May Warbler that “if nesting at all in Minnesota it must be in very limited numbers and in restricted localities.” His only report of potential nesting activity was an observation by T. Surber on June 19, 1919. In Michigan the story was similar. Kalamazoo, MI: Kalamazoo Nature Center. eBird is the real-time online checklist operated by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and Audubon. No quantitative studies of Cape May Warbler populations have been published in Minnesota. Observations during the breeding season had been noted as far south as southern St. Louis County and west to Itasca State Park. The historical status of the Cape May Warbler is difficult to assess in Minnesota. 2017). This drastic loss of breeding habitat would require a rapid expansion of coniferous trees northward in Canada to maintain a similar amount of area and this is unlikely in such a short time frame. In Wisconsin, Cutright et al. Version 2013. http://rmbo.org/pifpopestimates. 2016). “Bird–Building Collisions in the United States: Estimates of Annual Mortality and Species Vulnerability.” Condor 116: 8–23. Princeton: Princeton University Press. The population of the Cape May Warbler is clearly vulnerable in Minnesota and in North America. The future of the Cape May Warbler is dubious at present. 2015. Cape May Warbler breeds in boreal coniferous forests across Canada, from Alberta east to Quebec and in portions of the northern lower 48, from Minnesota to Maine. Natural Resources Research Institute Technical Report NRRI/TR-2016/36. In addition, Cape May Warblers appear to have high mortality during migration.
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