2. Of the test methods available, the primary differences are cost and resultant bias and precision. A general description of each test method and special characteristics affecting applicability is provided. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Evaluation of the rate of water movement through a pond liner is one example of this kind of measurement. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Users of this standard are cautioned in that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Related Products Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Standards Products, Active Standard ASTM D5126 | Developed by Subcommittee: D18.21, Permissions to reprint documents can be acquired throughCopyright Clearance Center Methods for estimating unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from fundamental soil hydraulic functions like the desorption curves may deviate from true values by an order of magnitude, but may be of use where relative differences in permeability between materials or across water content ranges is of interest. Penetration of the liner by a borehole would invalidate the measurement of liner permeability. 1.9 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. The most extensive use of field percolation testing for sanitary engineering application has been for the design and control of soil absorption systems for individual household sewage disposal. Use of a flexible bag as a reservoir that can be periodically weighed is advisable for these conditions. Professional percolation tests, required for septic leach fields, are expensive, and unnecessary for a small greywater system. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Symposia Papers & STPs. It has been noted that small-ring infiltrometers are subject to error due to lateral divergence of flow. Direct measurement techniques for determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivity include the instantaneous profile (IP) test method and the gypsum crust method. Reliable results depends on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process. Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. The ASTM D 3385 Standard Test Method for “Infiltration Rate of Soils in Field Using Double-Ring Infiltrometer” states in the Significance and Use section: “The purpose of the outer ring is to promote one-dimensional,vertical flow beneath the inner ring.” Standard percolation tests (such as for individual sewage disposal systems) measure both the vertical and horizontal components of soil infiltration. 1.2 Measurement of hydraulic conductivity in the field is used for estimating the rate of water movement through clay liners to determine if they are a barrier to water flux, for characterizing water movement below waste disposal sites to predict contaminant movement, and to measure infiltration and drainage in soils and sediment for a variety of applications. In current practice an approximate measure of the capacity of a soil for receiving treated sewage is obtained from falling-head percolation tests with clear water. This document cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Perc test holes should be made at points and elevations selected as typical in the area of the proposed absorption field. The gypsum crust test method, although more rapid than the instantaneous profile test method, sacrifices precision of results due to the smaller spatial extent of the tested area. This document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription. 1.7.1 The method used to specify how data are collected, calculated, or recorded in this standard is not directly related to the accuracy to which the data can be applied in design or other uses, or both. For RefWorks, EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zoteo, and many others. Use the following instructions to conduct a percolation test. A number of mathematical solutions for borehole outflow data are available (Stephens et al. The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice. 5.3 Information on unsaturated flow rates is needed to design hazardous waste landfills and impoundments where prevention of flow of contaminants into groundwater is needed. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. (18), and Philip (19)). The most extensive use of field percolation testing for sanitary engineering application has been for the design and control of soil absorption systems for individual household sewage disposal. This is the procedure for a percolation test in BC; other provinces and states may use a different procedure: 1. In addition to the use of the septic tank soil absorption system for the individual home as an on-lot disposal medium, soil is being used increasingly as a more general liquid waste disposal medium. How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope. True saturation does not occur due to entrapped air (1).2 The entrapped air prevents water from moving in air-filled pores that, in turn, may reduce the hydraulic conductivity measured in the field by as much as a factor of two compared to conditions when trapped air is not present (2).
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