history of media studies

Wikimedia Commons – public domain; Wikimedia Commons – public domain. The third domain, body image and self-esteem, is widely affected by advertising in the media. In 1800, a hand-operated printing press could produce about 480 pages per hour; Koenig’s machine more than doubled this rate. Did radio fuel the consumerist boom of the 1920s, or did the radio become wildly popular because it appealed to a society that was already exploring consumerist tendencies? Other studies were referenced for information on sexual content, body image, and health issues. In 1926, they owned 6.4 percent of U.S. broadcasting stations; by 1931, that number had risen to 30 percent. Mintz, Steven “The Jazz Age: The American 1920s: The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture,” Digital History, 2007, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?hhid=454. Beneficial effects include early readiness for learning, educational enrichment, opportunities to view or participate in discussions of social issues, exposure to the arts through music and performance, and entertainment. Pediatrics 108:1222–1226. While some forms of mass communication are better suited to entertainment, others make more sense as a venue for spreading information. Media Studies 104B is a core course for students who declared the Media Studies major in Spring 2018 or earlier. In July 2000, at a Congressional Public Health Summit, the AAP, the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and the APA issued an unprecedented "Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children." Americans are exposed to media in taxicabs and buses, in classrooms and doctors’ offices, on highways, and in airplanes. Library of Congress, “Radio: A Consumer Product and a Producer of Consumption,” Coolidge-Consumerism Collection, http://lcweb2.loc.gov:8081/ammem/amrlhtml/inradio.html. The study was done by the Committee on Public Education, and presented in their policy statement of August 1999. To further legitimize these concerns, the AAP reported that initial studies of interactive media show that the element of child-initiated virtual violence may result in even more significant effects than those of passive media. Briggs, Asa and Peter Burke, A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet (Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2005). A University of California, San Diego study claimed that U.S. households consumed a total of approximately 3.6 zettabytes of information in 2008—the digital equivalent of a 7-foot high stack of books covering the entire United States—a 350 percent increase since 1980 (Ramsey, 2009). This increase in time spent by children using media for recreation has been shown to be a significant factor in childhood obesity due to associated physical inactivity. We can begin to orient ourselves in the information cloud through parsing what roles the media fills in society, examining its history in society, and looking at the way technological innovations have helped bring us to where we are today. LIEBERT, ROBERT M., and SPREFKIN, JOYCE N. 1988. But with proper adult guidance, they can learn to critique what they view and become more discriminating consumers of media. They urge media producers to be more responsible in their portrayal of violence. Combined with FILM 108-002 Treating television as evil is just as reductive and silly as treating it like a toaster with pictures (Wallace, 1997).” Nonetheless, media messages and technologies affect us in countless ways, some of which probably won’t be sorted out until long in the future. Still, until the mid-1990s, television was dominated by the three large networks. Ramsey, Doug. The spread of cable and subsequent deregulation in the 1980s and 1990s led to more channels, but not necessarily to more diverse ownership. MEDIA HISTORY PROJECT. "Violence on Television." Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press enabled the mass production of media, which was then industrialized by Friedrich Koenig in the early 1800s. Some social critics argued that television was fostering a homogenous, conformist culture by reinforcing ideas about what “normal” American life looked like. Further research on the connections among media messages, body image, and self-esteem is warranted. 1992. 2001. McLuhan, Marshall. Programming produced by the Children's Television Workshop was innovative, was well received by the public, and became a model for other programs, both in the media and as in school settings, for providing effective early learning experiences to prepare young children to enter school. There are two important factors that must be included in the discussion of media influence on children. There are 4 Lecture Sections: Class #20536, #20668, #20669, #20712, Cross-listed with Public Policy C103: Wealth and Poverty. Broadcast media, in contrast, usually aired programs on a fixed schedule, which allowed it to both provide a sense of immediacy and fleetingness. In the United States, competing commercial stations (including the radio powerhouses of CBS and NBC) meant that commercial-driven programming dominated. These letters were an important part of U.S. newspapers even when the nation was a British colony, and they have served as a means of public discourse ever since. Often called media literacy, these skills include the ability to critically analyze media messages and the ability to use different kinds of communication technologies for self-expression and communication. 1996. The twentieth century was a time of phenomenal growth and development of new kinds of media. The department offers a popular secondary PhD field in Critical Media Practice. . 1994. In terms of print media, books are durable and able to contain lots of information, but are relatively slow and expensive to produce; in contrast, newspapers are comparatively cheaper and quicker to create, making them a better medium for the quick turnover of daily news. In contrast, the Internet encourages public discussion of issues and allows nearly everyone who wants a voice to have one. A decade and a half later, with the Internet firmly ensconced in our daily lives, McLuhan’s intellectual descendants are the media analysts who claim that the Internet is making us better at associative thinking, or more democratic, or shallower. All Rights Reserved Critical Media Practice, Graduate School in Arts and Sciences A pioneer in educational programming was the Children's Television Workshop, founded in 1968 by Joan Ganz Cooney, Lloyd Morrisett, Gerald Lesser, and others. Why did the creators of these particular messages present them in these particular ways and in these particular mediums? See also: LITERACY, subentry on MULTIMEDIA LITERACY; MEDIA AND LEARNING; OUT-OF-SCHOOL INFLUENCES AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS; TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION, subentry on CURRENT TRENDS. “The Loyalty Challenge: How Magazine Subscriptions Work,” In Circulation, January/February 2007. Harmful effects may result from sensationalization of violent behavior, exposure to subtle or explicit sexual content, promotion of unrealistic body images, presentation of poor health habits as desirable practices, and exposure to persuasive advertising targeting children. Tobacco manufacturers spend $6 billion per year and alcohol manufacturers $2 billion per year in advertising that appeals to children. The influence of media on children has been the subject of increased attention among parents, educators, and health care professionals. Moving pictures were first seen around the turn of the century, with the first U.S. projection-hall opening in Pittsburgh in 1905. The joint statement, however, included an interesting and important distinction that addressed the context of violence in the media, stating: "It is not violence itself but the context in which it is portrayed that can make the difference between learning about violence and learning to be violent." The 19th-century development of photographic technologies would lead to the later innovations of cinema and television. Half of U.S. households receive a daily newspaper, and the average person holds 1.9 magazine subscriptions (State of the Media, 2004) (Bilton, 2007). Media theorists and researchers have determined that the effects of this trend are being seen in both boys and girls, with negative psychological affects. "Children's Television Workshop." Cable providers allowed viewers a wide menu of choices, including channels specifically tailored to people who wanted to watch only golf, classic films, sermons, or videos of sharks. Office of Undergraduate and Interdisciplinary Studies. Upton Sinclair’s 1906 novel The Jungle exposed the miserable conditions in the turn-of-the-century meatpacking industry; and in the early 1970s, Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein uncovered evidence of the Watergate break-in and subsequent cover-up, which eventually led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon. “The Infobahn Is Not the Answer,” Wired, May 1994. Newsweek . State of the Media, project for Excellence in Journalism, The State of the News Media 2004, http://www.stateofthemedia.org/2004/. According to the Office of the Surgeon General, "children are theoretically more susceptible to behavioral influences when they are active participants than when they are observers."

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